Annotated bibliography of education in virtual worlds

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PERIODICALS[edit]

Journal of the Immersive Education Initiative This is a new journal, starting up in the summer of 2014. For more information: http://immersiveeducation.org

The Journal of Virtual Worlds Research

The Journal of Virtual Studies

The Journal of Virtual Worlds and Education --also available as an e-book


JOURNAL SPECIAL ISSUES[edit]

Lan, Y.-J., Lee, M. J. W., & Xie, T. (Eds.). (2013). Real education in virtual worlds (Special issue). International Journal of Virtual and Personal Learning Environments, 4(2). [2]. Guest editorial available at http://www.igi-global.com/Files/Ancillary/51d70d33-4b52-4428-b04c-0127e92f8091_Pages%20from%201947-8518_4_2_Text.pdf

Lee, M. J. W., Dalgarno, B., & Farley, H. (Eds.). (2012). Virtual worlds in tertiary education: An Australasian perspective (Special issue). Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 28(3). [3]. Guest editorial available at http://ascilite.org.au/ajet/ajet28/editorial28-3.html


GENERAL RESOURCES[edit]

Boellstorff, T. (2008). Coming of age in Second Life: An anthropologist explores the virtually human. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Scholarly but accessible guide to Second Life society and culture. A must-read for the beginner.

Dalgarno, B., & Lee, M. J. W. (2010). What are the learning affordances of 3-D virtual environments? British Journal of Educational Technology, 41(1), 10-32. [4]

Dalgarno, B., Lee, M. J. W., Carlson, L., Gregory, S., & Tynan, B. (2011). An Australian and New Zealand scoping study on the use of 3D immersive virtual worlds in higher education. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 27(1), 1-15. [5]

Dalgarno, B., Lee, M. J. W., Carlson, L., Gregory, S., & Tynan, B. (2011). Institutional support for and barriers to the use of 3D immersive virtual worlds in higher education. In G. Williams, N. Brown, M. Pittard, & B. Cleland (Eds.), Changing demands, changing directions. Proceedings of the 28th ASCILITE Conference (pp. 316-330). Hobart, Australia: University of Tasmania. [6]

Dalgarno, B., Gregory, S., Carlson, L., Lee, M. J. W., & Tynan, B. (2013). A systematic review and environmental analysis of the use of 3D immersive virtual worlds in Australian and New Zealand higher education institutions (Final project report). Armidale, Australia: DEHub. [7]

Foster, A. (2008). Professor Avatar. Education Digest, Vol. 73 Issue 5, p12. The article focuses on the use of the computer game Second Life in education. The game is an online community which allows users to personify themselves in an avatar and participate in discussions through the community. It is used as a teaching tool by colleges and universities in the U.S. and other countries. The article discusses a curriculum at Bradley University in Peoria, Illinois which uses the virtual community program, and mentions that it has been used as a distance learning tool and as a venue for recreating the ceiling painting of the Sistine Chapel as well as fictional locations from literature. The sexual aspects of the program are also discussed

Gregory, S., Gregory, B., Reiners, T., Fardinpour, A., Hillier, M., Lee, M. J. W., . . . Larson, I. (2013). Virtual worlds in Australian and New Zealand higher education: Remembering the past, understanding the present and imagining the future. In H. Carter, M. Gosper, & J. Hedberg (Eds.), Electric dreams. Proceedings of the 30th ASCILITE Conference (pp. 312-324). Sydney, Australia: Macquarie University. [8]

Gregory, S., Lee, M. J. W., Ellis, A., Gregory, B., Wood, D., Hillier, M., Campbell, M., Grenfell, J., Pace, S., Farley, H., Thomas, A., Cram, A. Sinnappan, S., Smith, K., Hay, L., Kennedy-Clark, S., Warren, I., Grant, S., Craven, D., Dreher, H., Matthews, C., Murdoch, D., & McKeown, L. (2010). Australian higher education institutions transforming the future of teaching and learning through 3D virtual worlds. In C. H. Steel, M. J. Keppell, P. Gerbic, & S. Housego (Eds.), Curriculum, technology & transformation for an unknown future. Proceedings of the 27th ASCILITE Conference (pp. 399-415). Brisbane, Australia: The University of Queensland. [9]

Hew, K., & Cheung, W. (2010). Use of three-dimensional (3-D) immersive virtual worlds in K-12 and higher education settings: A review of the research. British Journal Of Educational Technology, 41(1), 33-55.

Lee, M. J. W. (2009). How can 3D virtual worlds be used to support collaborative learning? An analysis of cases from the literature. Journal of e-Learning and Knowledge Society, 5(1), 149-158. [10]

Lee, M. J. W., & Dalgarno, B. (2011). Scaffolding discovery learning in 3D virtual environments: Challenges and considerations for instructional design. In S. Hai-Jew (Ed.), Virtual immersive and 3D learning spaces: Emerging technologies and trends (pp. 138-169). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference. [11]

Lee, M. J. W., Dalgarno, B., Gregory, S., Carlson, L., & Tynan, B. (2013). How are Australian and New Zealand higher educators using 3D immersive virtual worlds in their teaching? In J. Willems, B. Tynan, & R. James (Eds.), Outlooks and opportunities in blended and distance learning (pp. 169–188). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference. [12]

Morgado, L. (2011). Technology Challenges of Virtual Worlds in Education and Training - Research Directions. In "2013 5th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications (VS-GAMES)", pp. 1-5. Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE. [13]

Pellas, N. (2014). Open source virtual worlds for e-learning. In M. Khosrow-Pour (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology. Hershey, PA: IGI Global (in press).

Pellas, N. (2014). Conceptual foundations for interactive learning activities with the conjunction of Scratch4OS and Open Sim: Two examples to foster users’ motivation for learning basic algorithmic commands. In M. Khosrow-Pour (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology. Hershey, PA: IGI Global (in press).

Vilela, A.; Cardoso, M.; Martins, D.; Santos, A.; Moreira, L.; Paredes, H.; Martins, P.; Morgado, L. (2010). Privacy challenges and methods for virtual classrooms in Second Life Grid and OpenSimulator. In Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications - VS-GAMES 2010, Braga, Portugal (pp. 167-174). Piscataway, NJ: IEEE. [14]

Zagalo, N., Morgado, L., & Boa-Ventura, A. (2011, Eds.). Virtual Worlds and Metaverse Platforms: New Communication and Identity Paradigms. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference. [15]

ABILITY[edit]

Bouck, E., Satsangi, R., Doughty, T., & Courtney, W. (2014). Virtual and Concrete Manipulatives: A Comparison of Approaches for Solving Mathematics Problems for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal Of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 44(1), 180-193.

Gilbert, R., Murphy, N., Krueger, A., Ludwig, A., & Efron, T. (2013). Psychological Benefits of Participation in Three-dimensional Virtual Worlds for Individuals with Real-world Disabilities. International Journal Of Disability, Development & Education, 60(3), 208-224. The study used 196 participants, measured over a three-month span. Significant improvement of affective states.

Greffou, S., Bertone, A., Hahler, E., Hanssens, J., Mottron, L., & Faubert, J. (2012). Postural Hypo-Reactivity in Autism is Contingent on Development and Visual Environment: A Fully Immersive Virtual Reality Study. Journal Of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 42(6), 961-970.

Pellas, N., Konstantinou, N., Georgiou, G., Malliarakis, Ch. & Kazanidis, I. (2014). Utilizing a serious game via Open Sim standalone server and Scratch4OS for introductory programming courses in Secondary education: Their effect on student engagement. 2014 IEEE 14th International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT 2014). IEEE: Athens, Greece.

Stichter, J., Laffey, J., Galyen, K., & Herzog, M. (2014). iSocial: Delivering the Social Competence Intervention for Adolescents (SCI-A) in a 3D Virtual Learning Environment for Youth with High Functioning Autism. Journal Of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 44(2), 417-430.


CLASSROOM PRACTICE[edit]

Arancibia, M., Oliva, I., & Paiva, F. (2014). Meaning Processes mediated through a Protagonists' Collaborative Learning Platform. Comunicar, 21(42), 75-85. "Case study."

Bernardino Lopes, J.; Cravino, J.P.; Maia, A.M.; Morgado, L.; Martins, P.; Cruz, G.; Fernandes, P.; Pinheiro, A. (2013). 3D simulators in professional training learning complex tasks overcoming material, economic, and human constraints. In "2013 2nd Experiment@ International Conference (exp.at'13)", pp. 6-10. Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE. [16]

Bouta, H., & Paraskeva, F. (2013). The cognitive apprenticeship theory for the teaching of mathematics in an online 3D virtual environment. International Journal Of Mathematical Education In Science & Technology, 44(2), 159-178.

Chodos, D., Stroulia, E., King, S., & Carbonaro, M. (2014). A framework for monitoring instructional environments in a virtual world. British Journal Of Educational Technology, 45(1), 24-35. Recording and analyzing students' in-world actions.

Cruz, G.; Maia, A.; Morgado, L.; Fonseca, B.; Paredes, H.; Bessa, F.; Rodrigues, C.; Martins, P. (2013). Designing User Learning Experience in Virtual Worlds: The Young Europeans for Democracy Serious Application. In Á. Rocha, A.M. Correia, T. Wilson, & K.A. Stroetmann (Eds.) "Advances in Information Systems and Technologies" , pp. 1117-1128. ISBN 978-3-642-36980-3. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. [17]

Dalgarno, B., & Lee, M. J. W. (2012). Exploring the relationship between afforded learning tasks and learning benefits in 3D virtual learning environments. In M. Brown, M. Hartnett, & T. Stewart (Eds.), Future challenges, sustainable futures. Proceedings of the 29th ASCILITE Conference (pp. 236–245). Wellington, New Zealand: Massey University. [18]

Dalgarno, B., Lee, M. J. W., Carlson, L., Gregory, S., & Tynan, B. (2011). An Australian and New Zealand scoping study on the use of 3D immersive virtual worlds in higher education. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 27(1), 1-15. [19]

Dalgarno, B., Lee, M. J. W., Carlson, L., Gregory, S., & Tynan, B. (2011). Institutional support for and barriers to the use of 3D immersive virtual worlds in higher education. In G. Williams, N. Brown, M. Pittard, & B. Cleland (Eds.), Changing demands, changing directions. Proceedings of the 28th ASCILITE Conference (pp. 316-330). Hobart, Australia: University of Tasmania. [20]

Dass, S., Dabbagh, N., & Clark, K. (2011). USING VIRTUAL WORLDS What the Research Says. Quarterly Review Of Distance Education, 12(2), 95-111. Virtual worlds are defined and 15 case studies are summarized through 3 lenses: inherent characteristics, pedagogical approach, and student perceptions.

De Freitas, S., Rebolledo-Mendez, G., Liarokapis, F., Magoulas, G., & Poulovassilis, A. (2010). Learning as immersive experiences: Using the four-dimensional framework for designing and evaluating immersive learning experiences in a virtual world. British Journal Of Educational Technology, 41(1), 69-85.

Dickey, M. (2011). The pragmatics of virtual worlds for K-12 educators: investigating the affordances and constraints of Active Worlds and Second Life with K-12 in-service teachers. Educational Technology Research & Development, 59(1), 1-20.

Downey, S. (2011). i-MMOLE: Instructional Framework for Creating Virtual World Lessons. Techtrends: Linking Research & Practice To Improve Learning, 55(6), 33-41. "This article describes the underlying foundation of this framework and how to utilize i-MMOLE in the creation of one's own virtual world based instruction"

Esteves, M.; Fonseca, B.; Morgado, L.; Martins, P. (2009). Using Second Life for Problem Based Learning in Computer Science Programming, Journal of Virtual Worlds Research, 1(2). [21]

Esteves, M., Fonseca, B., Morgado, L., & Martins, P. (2011). Improving teaching and learning of computer programming through the use of the Second Life virtual world. British Journal Of Educational Technology, 42(4), 624-637. [22]

Gregory, S., Gregory, B., Reiners, T., Fardinpour, A., Hillier, M., Lee, M. J. W., . . . Larson, I. (2013). Virtual worlds in Australian and New Zealand higher education: Remembering the past, understanding the present and imagining the future. In H. Carter, M. Gosper, & J. Hedberg (Eds.), Electric dreams. Proceedings of the 30th ASCILITE Conference (pp. 312-324). Sydney, Australia: Macquarie University. [23]

Gregory, S., Lee, M. J. W., Ellis, A., Gregory, B., Wood, D., Hillier, M., Campbell, M., Grenfell, J., Pace, S., Farley, H., Thomas, A., Cram, A. Sinnappan, S., Smith, K., Hay, L., Kennedy-Clark, S., Warren, I., Grant, S., Craven, D., Dreher, H., Matthews, C., Murdoch, D., & McKeown, L. (2010). Australian higher education institutions transforming the future of teaching and learning through 3D virtual worlds. In C. H. Steel, M. J. Keppell, P. Gerbic, & S. Housego (Eds.), Curriculum, technology & transformation for an unknown future. Proceedings of the 27th ASCILITE Conference (pp. 399-415). Brisbane, Australia: The University of Queensland. [24]

Guzzetti, B.J., & Stokrocki, M. (2014). Reflections on Teaching and Learning in Virtual Worlds. E-Learning and Digital Media, 10, 3, 243-260. This article reports on K 12 and college teachers’ perceptions of the educational uses of Second Life, identification of obstacles to incorporating this virtual world into instruction, and their recommendations for addressing those limitations.

Haisen Zhang1, H. (2013). Pedagogical challenges of spoken English learning in the Second Life virtual world: A case study. British Journal Of Educational Technology, 44(2), 243-254. Case study.

Huang, Y., Backman, S., Chang, L., Backman, K., & McGuire, F. (2013). Experiencing student learning and tourism training in a 3D virtual world: An exploratory study. Journal Of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education (Elsevier Science), 13190-201.

Kim, C., Lee, S., & Kang, M. (2012). I became an attractive person in the virtual world: Users’ identification with virtual communities and avatars. Computers In Human Behavior, 28(5), 1663-1669.

Lee, M. J. W. (2009). How can 3D virtual worlds be used to support collaborative learning? An analysis of cases from the literature. Journal of e-Learning and Knowledge Society, 5(1), 149-158. [25]

Lee, M. J. W., Dalgarno, B., Gregory, S., Carlson, L., & Tynan, B. (2013). How are Australian and New Zealand higher educators using 3D immersive virtual worlds in their teaching? In J. Willems, B. Tynan, & R. James (Eds.), Outlooks and opportunities in blended and distance learning (pp. 169–188). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference. [26]

Lin, H., & Wang, H. (2014). Avatar creation in virtual worlds: Behaviors and motivations. Computers In Human Behavior, 34213-218. Developed 18-item scale on avatar creation motivation. Identified behavior patterns, motivational dimensions.

Lomanowska, A., & Guitton, M. (2014). My avatar is pregnant! Representation of pregnancy, birth, and maternity in a virtual world. Computers In Human Behavior, 31322-331.

Lowes, S., & Hamilton, G. (2013). Teaching Communication Skills to Medical Students in a Virtual World. Journal Of Interactive Technology & Pedagogy, (3), 1-25.

Lopes, A.; Pires, B.; Cardoso, M.; Santos, A.; Peixinho, F.; Sequeira, P.; Morgado, L.; Paredes, H.; Foguet, O.C. (2009). Use of a virtual world system in sports coach education for reproducing team handball movements, Journal of Virtual Worlds Research, 1(2). [27]

Lukman, R., & Krajnc, M. (2012). Exploring Non-traditional Learning Methods in Virtual and Real-world Environments. Journal Of Educational Technology & Society, 15(1), 237-247.

Mathews, S., Andrews, L., & Luck, E. (2012). Developing a Second Life virtual field trip for university students: an action research approach. Educational Research, 54(1), 17-38.

Miller, C., Lee, M. J. W., Rogers, L., Meredith, G., & Peck, B. (2011). Enhancing tertiary healthcare education through 3D MUVE-based simulations. In G. Vincenti & J. Braman (Eds.), Teaching through multi-user virtual environments: Applying dynamic elements to the modern classroom (pp. 341–364). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference. [28]

Morgan, E. (2013). Virtual Worlds: Integrating Second Life into the History Classroom. History Teacher, 46(4), 547-559. "Second Life used as a student meeting space and as a venue for the study of history. Students used the program for projects on a U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum project."

Morgado, L. (2005). Framework for Computer Programming in Preschool and Kindergarten. Doctoral thesis. Vila Real, Portugal: University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro.

Muir, T., Allen, J., Rayner, C., & Cleland, B. (2013). Preparing pre-service teachers for classroom practice in a virtual world: A pilot study using Second Life. Journal Of Interactive Media In Education, 1-17. Pilot study with eight pre-service teachers.

Noteborn, G., Dailey-Hebert, A., Carbonell, K., & Gijselaers, W. (2014). Essential knowledge for academic performance: Educating in the virtual world to promote active learning. Teaching & Teacher Education, 37217-234. Provides recommendations for course designers and course developers to improve students' performance.

Nussli, N., & Oh, K. (2014). The Components of Effective Teacher Training in the Use of Three-Dimensional Immersive Virtual Worlds for Learning and Instruction Purposes: A Literature Review. Journal Of Technology & Teacher Education, 22(2), 213-241. Key components of teacher training in 3D immersive worlds. [29]

Oh, K., & Nussli, N. (2014). Teacher training in the use of a three-dimensional immersive virtual world: Building understanding through first-hand experiences. Journal of Teaching and Learning with Technology, 3(1), 33-58. "Teacher training for special education teachers in the use of virtual worlds." [30]

Okutsu, M., DeLaurentis, D., Brophy, S., & Lambert, J. (2013). Teaching an aerospace engineering design course via virtual worlds: A comparative assessment of learning outcomes. Computers & Education, 60(1), 288-298.

Pellas, N. & Kazanidis, I. (2013). A qualitative research approach for the investigation and evaluation of adult users’ participation factors through collaborative e-learning activities in the virtual world of “Second Life”. In V. Wang (Ed.), Handbook of Research Teaching and Learning in K-20 Education (pp. 475-500). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Pellas, N. & Kazanidis, I. (2013). E-learning quality through Second Life: Exploiting, investigating and evaluating the efficiency parameters of collaborative activities in Higher Education. In V. Bryan & V. Wang (Ed.), Technology Use and Research Approaches for Community Education and Professional Development (pp. 250-273). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Pellas, N. & Kazanidis, I. (2012). Utilizing and evaluating the virtual world of Second Life for collaborative activities: A primary case study. In C. Karagiannidis, P. Politis & I. Karasavvidis (eds.), Proceedings of the 8th Pan-Hellenic Conference with International Participation «ICT in Education». University of Thessaly, Volos, Greece.

Pellas, N., Peroutseas, E. & Kazanidis, I. (2013). Virtual communities of inquiry (VCoI) for learning basic algorithmic structures with Open Simulator & Scratch4(OS): A case study from the Secondary Education in Greece. In K. Diamantaras, G. Evangelidis, Y. Manolopoulos, C. Georgiadis, P. Kefalas, D. Stamatis (Eds.), Balkan Conference in Informatics, BCI '13 (pp. 187-194). Thessaloniki, Greece: ACM Press.

Pellas, N. (2014). The influence of computer self-efficacy, metacognitive self-regulation and self-esteem on student engagement in online learning programs: Evidence from the virtual world of Second Life. Computers in Human Behavior, 35(1), 157-170.

Pellas, N. & Kazanidis, I. (2013). Engaging students in blended and online collaborative courses at university level through Second Life: Comparative perspectives and instructional affordances. New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia Journal. DOI:10.1080/13614568.2013.856958.

Pellas, N. & Kazanidis, I. (2013). The impact of computer self-efficacy, situational interest and academic self-concept in virtual communities of inquiry during the distance learning procedures through Second Life. World Wide Web Journal, 17(4), 695-722.

Pellas, N. & Kazanidis, I. (2013). On the value of Second Life for students’ engagement in hybrid and online university-level courses: A comparative study from Higher education in Greece. Education and Information Technologies. DOI: 10.1007/s10639-013-9294-4

Pereira, Â.; Martins, P.; Morgado, L.; & Fonseca, B. (2009). A virtual environment study in entrepreneurship education of young children, Journal of Virtual Worlds Research, 1(2). [31]

Rahim, N. (2013). Collaboration and knowledge sharing using 3D virtual world on Second Life. Education For Information, 30(1), 1-40.

STOKROCKI, M. (2014). Art Treasure Quests in Second Life: A Multi-Literacy Adventure. Art Education, 67(2), 37-42. Treasure quests in virtual worlds can help students develop multi-literacy communication skills and promote community, offering insights about art teaching and learning.


GAMES AND VIRTUAL WORLDS TEACHING[edit]

Alexander, B. (2008). Deepening the chasm: Web 2.0, gaming, and course management systems. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 4(2), 198-204. Link to issue: http://jolt.merlot.org/Vol4_No2.htm

Web 2.0 has emerged into a large, growing, and developing world of content and platforms. Gaming has rapidly expanded into a global industry. In contrast course management systems have developed along very different lines. We examine ways for the CMS to connect with these two worlds, outlining areas for possible development: increased hyperlinking, internal platforms and instances, and extruded applications. Additionally we consider ways by which the CMS can learn strategically and conceptually from Web 2.0 and gaming. Keywords: Web 2.0, gaming, course management systems, learning management systems, virtual learning environments, social media

deNoyelles, A., Hornik, S. R., & Johnson, R. D. (2014). Exploring the dimensions of self-efficacy in virtual world learning: Environment, task, and content. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 10(2), 255–271. http://jolt.merlot.org/Vol10_No2.htm

This study explores the dimensionality of college students' self-efficacy related to their academic activities in the open-ended virtual world of Second Life (SL). To do this, relevant dimensions of self-efficacy were theoretically derived, and items to measure these dimensions were developed and then assessed using a survey methodology. Using data from 486 students enrolled in an introductory accounting course supplemented by the use of SL, the results of this study confirm the distinction of three dimensions of self-efficacy: Virtual World-Environment Self-Efficacy (VWE-SE), Learning Domain Self-Efficacy (LD-SE), and Virtual World-Learning Domain Self-Efficacy (VWLD-SE). Additionally, this study found that both VWE-SE and VWLD-SE were correlated with course learning. Implications for research and course design are discussed. Keywords: virtual world, three-dimensional multi-user virtual environment (3D MUVE), Second Life, self-efficacy, financial accounting education

Hai-Jew, S. (2009). Exploring the immersive parasocial: Is it you or the thought of you? MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 5(3), 550-561. http://jolt.merlot.org/Vol5_No3.htm

Immersive and persistent 3D virtual spaces have been adopted for e-learning in higher education. These spaces involve multi-sensory, real-time interactivity with other learners through high-fidelity, human-embodied avatars as well as automated ‘bots; these involve virtual contexts that situate various types of learning. Practitioners have discussed promoting immersive addictions to support long-term, deep-transfer, and complex systems-based learning. The social presences of human-embodied avatars, in individuals and groups, and their communications-heavy interactivity, have encouraged the development of parasocial relationships in several forms: self-love of people for their own avatars (which they may build up with a range of attractive features and digital powers), and other-love for others’ online personas. Understanding the parasocial spectrum will be important for those heading into immersive multiverses, especially with campuses starting to offer full-service virtual and distance support systems that encourage distance learning without the hybrid / blended or any aspect of face-to-face (F2F). This position paper explores ways to build immersive learning and to communicate to elicit the salutary parasocial effects while avoiding possible negative ones. Keywords: parasocial, 3D immersive, persistent virtual space, human-embodied avatar, social presence, virtual relationships, multiverses, haptics

Jenner, S., Zhao, M., & Foote, T. H. (2010). Teamwork and team performance in online simulations: The business strategy game. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 6(2), 416-430. http://jolt.merlot.org/Vol6_No2.htm

Many variables affect teamwork and team performance on assignments, including student characteristics, the delivery mode, and instructors’ decisions about assignment design. In this study, the online assignment was a computer simulation of a competitive industry, the Business Strategy Game. Links between student teams’ performance and the delivery mode (online versus on-campus) and some of the instructors’ decisions regarding how to structure the simulation assignment were examined. Online delivery was correlated with significantly lower student team performance compared to on-campus delivery. On the other hand, while larger class size and smaller team size had negative effects on a student team’s performance for on-campus courses, class size, and team size did not matter online. In other words, team performance with online delivery was not constrained by class size or team size as it was on-campus. It was determined that instructors can improve team performance by making key choices when designing and delivering online simulation assignments. For on-campus delivery, allowing more class time for more frequent teamwork discussions was found to lead to higher team performance. Larger teams of 4-6 students outperformed smaller teams using on-campus delivery. Keywords: teamwork, team performance, strategic management, online simulation, business strategy game

Mabrito, M. (2012). Student as avatar: A study of informational preferences in a virtual world class. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 8(2), 111–121. http://jolt.merlot.org/Vol8_No2.htm

There is a growing interest among educators in exploring multi-user virtual environments (MUVEs) such as Second Life as platforms for distance learning and other applications. Yet, the notion that virtual worlds also provide an opportunity for writing instructors to teach about multimodal texts and new media literacies is an area that has received less attention. This study examined the informational preferences of avatars (students) who were members of a class that met online in the virtual world of Second Life. Specifically, the purpose was to assess avatars’ informational preferences from among three different media: print articles, machinima, and direct exploration within Second Life while enrolled in a course studying virtual worlds. It was found that avatars expressed a greater preference for information gathered from machinima and information gathered firsthand from Second Life than print-based information. However, over time, they expressed a greater preference for information drawn directly from Second Life. Their subsequent discussions about the information varied in specificity, depending on the medium they were referencing. Keywords: virtual worlds, multi-user virtual environments (MUVEs), avatars, Second Life, informational preferences, new media literacies

McDaniel, R., & Telep, P. (2009). Best practices for integrating game-based learning into online teaching. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 5(2), 424-438. http://jolt.merlot.org/Vol5_No2.htm

This article presents ten guidelines for the effective use of video games in online teaching environments for post-secondary instructors. These guidelines include: taking advantage of existing resources, asking students to be producers instead of just consumers, avoiding being overly prescriptive, being aware of non-media-intense and non-electronic games, staying focused on learning—not technology, orienting and debriefing students as to the value of gaming activities, embracing interdisciplinarity, taking advantage of serious games, considering collaborative technologies and virtual worlds, and playtesting. Recent research in game-based learning is considered to help guide these best practices and numerous ideas for incorporating games into the virtual classroom are provided. Although empirical research about the effectiveness of online video games as educational tools is an important component for sustainability and for improving online learning games, this paper focuses exclusively on the theoretical and applied issues associated with online game-based learning. The authors contend that such teaching practices are useful for engaging with student audiences and encouraging them to take intellectual risks in comfortable and familiar territory. Keywords: video games, engagement, play, game theory, teaching, pedagogy, applied research, game-based technology, guidelines, best practices

McKerlich, R., Anderson, T., Riis, M., & Eastman, B. (2011). Student perceptions of teaching presence, social presence and cognitive presence in a virtual world. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 7(3), 324–336. Link to issue: http://jolt.merlot.org/Vol7_No3.htm

Presence - or having a sense of active participation - in distance education has increased with the expanding use of and affordances of communications technologies. Virtual worlds have been on the forefront of popular and education technology in the last three years and innovative methods of teaching and learning are emerging in these contexts. Using the recently validated community of inquiry (COI) instrument, this study focuses on students’ perceptions of teaching, social and cognitive presence in virtual world contexts. The authors examine whether the COI Instrument can effectively be applied to virtual world learning events. The results are exciting: in a diverse sample, virtual world learners perceive teaching presence, social presence and cognitive presence. Keywords: community of inquiry, virtual worlds, teaching presence, social presence, cognitive presence

Meggs, S. M., Greer, A. G., & Collins, S. (2011). Integrating Second Life as a pedagogical tool for interactive instruction. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 7(3), 380–392. http://jolt.merlot.org/Vol7_No3.htm

Technology advances at such a rapid pace that its effective application in higher education is often overlooked and poorly researched prior to its implementation in teaching strategies. The union of technology and pedagogical relevance is a developmental process requiring a review of course goals and objectives and a consideration of whether the technological applications serve to enhance the delivery of instruction. It also requires a well-developed system for delivery of technology instruction that is integrated into the curricular schedule. A strong support staff must be available to facilitate the use of technical applications and to solve problems. This paper provides a case study of the process of designing an innovative curriculum for an introductory lab course in interior design. The course, titled Interior Design Fundamentals Laboratory, provides a conceptual and skills foundation for future interior design professionals. The pedagogy is structured as a collaborative service-learning model incorporating Second Life virtual reality as a delivery mechanism for enhancing the depth of instruction. Relevancy to the millennial generation is considered in the context of the culture of the contemporary teaching and learning environment. The potential for extending applications for global communication and professional exchange is explored. Second Life supports self-directed learning by providing product review, peer interaction, and opportunities for research and critical analysis. The practical, systematic integration of Second Life into a pedagogical framework is feasible and relevant for a wide variety of applications. Keywords: virtual learning, interior design, service-learning

Mennecke, B., Hassall, L. M., & Triplett, J. (2008). The mean business of Second Life: Teaching entrepreneurship, technology and e-commerce in immersive environments. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 4(3), 339–348. http://jolt.merlot.org/Vol4_No3.htm

Second Life is a three-dimensional multi-user virtual environment with a vibrant economy, where avatars (virtual representations of users) can engage in innovative and unique business and collaborative activities. The immersive nature of this application creates ample authentic opportunities for teaching entrepreneurship, technology and e-commerce. This article describes a Masters of Business Administration elective course, in which Second Life was utilized to teach strategic and managerial issues related to e-commerce. The collected data indicate that the students in this course experienced a steep learning curve with regards to the complicated interface of Second Life, its complex social canvas and non-traditional framing of teaching and learning. The article discusses an array of pedagogical issues to be considered in the design and development of an immersive course.

Keywords: e-commerce, virtual worlds, business education, immersive environments, learning activities

Parise, S., & Crosina, E. (2012). How a mobile social media game can enhance the educational experience. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 8(3), 209–222. http://jolt.merlot.org/Vol8_No3.htm

The rise of experiential learning has challenged traditional delivery models and led to an increase in the application of gaming to promote learning in higher education. As such, computer-based games are being used more and more to motivate students, encourage engagement, and ultimately improve learning outcomes. Games, overall, are well aligned with a constructivist model of learning in which students become active participants in the learning process through exploration. The education environment through social media gaming, in particular, changes from passive to active as learning activities require active engagement and tend to leverage one's personal experiences. This case study illustrates the benefits students in a blended learning course derive from using a game designed on the SCVNGR platform for smartphones. Feedback from students indicates increased collaborative learning and teamwork. The case study further elaborates on the broader advantages, challenges, and opportunities of using various digital games for learning and teaching in higher education. Keywords: digital games, gamification, constructivist learning, experiential learning, social media, mobile learning

Rajasingham, L. (2009). The impact of artificial intelligence (AI) systems on future university paradigms. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 5(2), 386–394. http://jolt.merlot.org/Vol5_No2.htm

This paper explores the potential of artificial intelligent (AI) systems in the university’s core functions of teaching, learning and knowledge nexus, against the background of rapid technological change, globalisation and challenges facing universities to respond to societies’ needs in the knowledge age. As knowledge and innovation will drive competitive economic advantage in increasingly Internet defined infrastructures, a new university paradigm is needed where telecommunications and computers replace roads, buildings and transport technology that underpinned the industrial university that operated in the industrial age. As the Internet a global communication tool continues to impact on all human activities and enterprise changing the way we shop, bank, do business, entertain ourselves, communicate and think, it is radically changing how, when and what we learn. This paper introduces the idea of a HyperClass based on HyperReality, an advanced form of distributed virtual reality where physical reality and virtual reality, and human intelligence and artificial intelligence intermesh and interact to provide anyone, anywhere, anytime learning, in which teaching could be done by Just in Time Artificially Intelligent Tutors (JITAITs) that will pop up when needed, whilst students use avatars –online simulacra of themselves – to interact as telepresences in classes from different countries and locations. Keywords: modern university paradigm, virtual university, Internet, globalization, avatars, HyperClass, just in time artificially intelligent tutor (JITAIT)

Ryu, D. (2011). Non-native English speakers’ multiliteracy learning in beyond-game culture: A sociocultural study. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 7(2), 231–243. http://jolt.merlot.org/Vol7_No2.htm

The popularity of video games carries implications in game players’ first (L1) and second language (L2) literacy. Based on the sociocultural theory and the New London Group’s multiliteracies, non-native English speakers’ asynchronous computer-mediated communication (CMC) in beyond-game culture was analyzed to identify their traditional and new literacy learning moments. Discourse analysis of their CMC interactions presented multimodal, multilingual, multicultural as well as traditional literacy learning from participation in beyond-game affinity space, which had educational implications for L1 and L2 literacy learning. Teachers as well as researchers need to consider how to bridge these emerging literacy practices to an existing literacy curriculum. Keywords: gaming, game play, beyond-game culture, affinity space, participatory culture, multiliteracies, computer-mediated communication

Sanders, R. L., & Melton, S. J. (2010). The AETZone experience: A qualitative analysis of the use of presence pedagogy in a 3D immersive learning environment. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 6(1), 62–70. http://jolt.merlot.org/Vol6_No1.htm

Faculty in the Department of Leadership and Educational Studies at Appalachian State University have utilized AETZone, a 3D virtual world to deliver graduate coursework for the past nine years. Instruction has been guided by the Reich College of Education’s social constructivist conceptual framework, resulting in a learning environment that emphasizes the social construction of knowledge through interaction with others within virtual communities of practice. Over time, certain teaching and learning behaviors and practices that reflect both the tenets of the social constructivist framework and the features of the virtual world have organically developed through faculty and student engagement in this unique learning space and have been referred to as Presence Pedagogy (P2). However, for this new pedagogical approach to serve as a model for future instruction, a more articulate operational definition of this model is needed. Therefore, the research question discussed in this paper is: To what extent is the Presence Pedagogy framework reflected in the actions and behaviors of students and faculty in the AETZone? The authors conclude that while the overall characteristics of P2 are supported, a gap exists in the model regarding interactions that are more social in nature. While social interaction may be implied in the P2 framework, more attention and emphasis is needed in terms of creating and maintaining this AETZone experience. Keywords: social constructivism, presence pedagogy, virtual worlds, AETZone, presence, interaction

Schofield, D. (2012). Mass effect: A chemical engineering application of virtual reality simulator technology. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 8(1), 83–78. http://jolt.merlot.org/Vol8_No1.htm

Advanced three-dimensional (3D) virtual reality (VR) technology similar to that used by the film and computer game industries can allow educational developers to rapidly create realistic online virtual environments. This technology has been used to generate a range of online VR-based learning environments across a broad spectrum of industries and educational application areas. This idea is not new; flight simulators have been used for decades to train pilots for both commercial and military aviation. There are a number of lessons that can be learned from the industries that have successfully utilized virtual training and learning systems. Generic rules of thumb regarding the specification, development, application, and operation of these learning environments can be garnered from these industrial training systems and examined in an educational context. In this paper, an online VR-based system developed by the author, ViRILE (Virtual Reality Interactive Learning Environment), is introduced. This software is designed for use by undergraduate chemical engineers and simulates the configuration and operation of a polymerization plant. During the implementation of this and other visual learning environments, a number of complex operational problems were encountered that have required a number of innovative solutions and management procedures to be developed. The implementation of this and other similar systems is also discussed in this paper, and the lessons learned are extrapolated into general pedagogical guidelines to be considered for the development of VR-based online educational learning resources. Keywords: virtual reality, simulation, chemical engineering education, learning technology, training, guidelines

Smith, M., & Berge, Z. L. (2009). Social learning theory in Second Life. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 5(2), 439-445. http://jolt.merlot.org/Vol5_No2.htm

One of the current trends in distance education is the use of multi-user virtual environments (MUVE) as a training platform. MUVEs are being used for both formal and informal online learning. Second Life is a popular MUVEs being used for education today. Teaching and learning in Second Life requires a paradigm shift by educators, researchers, and learners who must adapt to a new environment of teaching and learning. Although things are done differently, many traditional learning theories can apply to Second Life. Examples of Albert Bandura’s social learning theory in Second Life are explored in this paper.Keywords: Second Life, social learning theory, MUVE, multi-user virtual environment, virtual worlds, Bandura

Soto, V. J. (2013). Which instructional design models are educators using to design virtual world instruction? MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 9(3), 364–375. http://jolt.merlot.org/Vol9_No3.htm

The purpose of this study was to identify which instructional design (ID) models are currently used in designing virtual world instruction and why. The goal was to identify specific ID elements being used to develop virtual world instruction that enable effective utilization of the technology to support desired learning experiences for students. A review of the literature revealed that there was limited current research about how ID models are being used to develop instruction in virtual world environments. Although previous research studies have focused on understanding how existing ID models are suitable for designing and developing web-based instruction, research was not found that explains how ID models are being used to develop instruction in virtual world environments. Through the study, it was discovered that analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation (ADDIE) was the most commonly used process for the design of virtual world instruction. It was also deemed the most appropriate since ADDIE summarizes five phases of an ID process. Essential ID elements were also generated to design and develop virtual world instruction. Keywords: virtual world, 3D multi-user virtual environment (3D MUVE), instructional design, ADDIE model

Vogel-Walcutt, J. J., Del Giudice, K., Fiorella, L., & Nicholson, D. (2013). Using a video game as an advance organizer: Effects on development of procedural and conceptual knowledge, cognitive load, and casual adoption. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 9(3), 376–392. http://jolt.merlot.org/Vol9_No3.htm

This paper reports on a study aimed at investigating whether a video game can act as an advance organizer for teaching a military call for fire task in order to improve learning efficiency. Participants were 23 males and 45 females, randomly assigned to one of four conditions. Conditions were developed by a 2 x 2 matrix using video games with and without advance organizers to enhance decision-making skills. Participants completed two increasing levels of training that were followed by posttests in several areas. Results indicate that commercial, off-the-shelf video games do not appear to increase learning effectiveness. However, individuals who utilized an educationally relevant video game prior to learning reported more interest in continuing to learn. Unfortunately, they also reported investing higher cognitive load to acquire equal knowledge compared to the traditional outline advance organizer. These data support recent findings that suggest that ill-structured game-based learning environments can impede learning outcomes due to the extraneous cognitive load imposed by gaming elements. Keywords: advance organizer, video game, knowledge acquisition, cognitive load, casual adoption


Wang, C. X., Anstadt, S., Goldman, J., & Lefaiver, M. L. M. (2014). Facilitating group discussions in Second Life. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 10(1), 139–152. http://jolt.merlot.org/Vol10_No1.htm

This paper reports on a case study of group facilitation in Second Life, a three-dimensional virtual world that simulates places either in the real or imaginary worlds with capabilities of synchronous communications in text, gesture, and audio formats. The participants were four graduate students facilitating group discussions in a virtual world called Second Life. The study took a qualitative approach revealing the essence of group facilitation in a virtual world (e.g., Second Life). The article discusses five important themes that emerged through data analysis and offers implications and suggestions for group facilitators to work in a virtual world like Second Life. Keywords: virtual world, 3D multi-user virtual environment (3D MUVE), Second Life, group discussion, group facilitation, synchronous communication

Wang, F., Burton, J. K., & Falls, J. (2012). A three-step model for designing initial Second Life-based foreign language learning activities. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 8(4), 324-333. http://jolt.merlot.org/Vol8_No4.htm

The use of three-dimensional virtual worlds such as Second Life (SL) to support foreign language learning and teaching has been receiving increasing attention over the last decade. A review of the literature revealed a lack of activity design models for SL-based foreign language learning. This paper proposes a model that may be used by foreign language educators to design initial SL-based learning activities for their students. The suggested model integrates three language-learning features to contribute to effective language learning, to satisfy students' preference for working in groups, and to reduce SL's chances of crashing. The model also provides a mechanism for moderating SL's steep learning curve. Keywords: Second Life, foreign language learning, computer-assisted language learning (CALL), learning design

LANGUAGE TEACHING[edit]

IbÂñez, M., García, J., GalÂn, S., Maroto, D., Morillo, D., & Kloos, C. (2011). Design and Implementation of a 3D Multi-User Virtual World for Language Learning. Journal Of Educational Technology & Society, 14(4), 2-10.

Oh, K., & Nussli, N. (2014). Creating a global second language acquisition classroom using a virtual environment. Research paper presented at The Sixth International Conference on Mobile, Hybrid, and On-line Learning (eLML), March 23-27, 2014, Barcelona, Spain. "Conversation practice between English language learners and special education teachers in Second Life." [32]


LAW[edit]

SL Used for Postgraduate Law Degree. University of Western Australia. Contact: Laurina Hawks http://uwainsl.blogspot.com.au/2014/06/sl-used-for-postgraduate-law-degree.html


LIBRARIES AND LIBRARIANSHIP[edit]

Cote, D., Ashford, R., Kraemer, B., Nahl, D. (2012). Academic Librarians in Second Life. Journal of Library Innovation 3(1). Sixty-two librarians provided details on various aspects of their professional involvement in Second Life. Findings show that librarians from every type of academic institution, at all levels of advancement, and in every department participate in this virtual world PDF

Hill, V., & Meister, M. (2013). Virtual worlds and libraries. College & Research Libraries News, 74(1), 43-47.

Mon, L. M. (2012). Professional avatars: librarians and educators in virtual worlds. Journal Of Documentation, 68(3), 318-329.

Webber, S. and Nahl, D. (2011). Sustaining learning for LIS through use of a virtual world. IFLA Journal, 37(1 ), 5-15. Describes the benefits of using Second Life for education and practice, with examples. [33]

Yavarkovsky, J. (2013). Editorial Board Thoughts: The Promise of Immersive Libraries. Information Technology & Libraries, 32(4), 5-7.


MUSIC[edit]

Rogers, L. Virtual Concerts in the Park: Classical Music in Second Life. Arts Management Network. 7, Apr. 2009. Available at: [34]

Rogers, L. Music Island: Five Years of Virtual Concerts in the Park. H+ Magazine. 19, Sept. 2012. Available at: [35]

Schwartz, D. Second Life and Classical Music Education: Developing Iconography That Encourages Human Interaction. Journal For Virtual Worlds Research, North America, 2, mar. 2009. Available at: http://journals.tdl.org/jvwr/index.php/jvwr/article/view/392. Date accessed: 03 Jun. 2014.


HEALTH SCIENCES AND NURSING EDUCATION[edit]

De Gagne, J., Oh, J., Kang, J., Vorderstrasse, A., & Johnson, C. (2013). Virtual Worlds in Nursing Education: A Synthesis of the Literature. Journal Of Nursing Education, 52(7), 391-400.

Miller, C., Lee, M. J. W., Rogers, L., Meredith, G., & Peck, B. (2011). Enhancing tertiary healthcare education through 3D MUVE-based simulations. In G. Vincenti & J. Braman (Eds.), Teaching through multi-user virtual environments: Applying dynamic elements to the modern classroom (pp. 341–364). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference. [36]

Miller, M., & Jensen, R. (2014). Avatars in Nursing: An Integrative Review. Nurse Educator, 39(1), 38-41.

Phillips, D., Duke, M., Nagle, C., Macfarlane, S., Karantzas, G., & Patterson, D. (2013). The Virtual Maternity Clinic: A teaching and learning innovation for midwifery education. Nurse Education Today, 33(10), 1224-1229.

SCIENCES[edit]

Experiments in Second Life Reveal Alternative Laws of Physics. (June 5, 2014). MIT Technology Review. http://www.technologyreview.com/view/528041/experiments-in-second-life-reveal-alternative-laws-of-physics/

dos Santos, R. (2012). Second Life as a Platform for Physics Simulations and Microworlds: An Evaluation. Proceedings of the CBLIS 2012. Barcelona: CRECIM - Centre for Research in Science and Mathematics,p.173-180. PDF available here


TECHNOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES AND CONTRIBUTIONS FOR EDUCATION[edit]

Antunes, R.; Morgado, L.; Martins, P.; Fonseca, B. (2008). Managing 3D Virtual Classrooms, Learning Technology 10(1), 3-5. [37]

Fonseca, B.; Paredes, H.; Rafael, Lt. J.; Morgado, L.; Martins, P. (2011). A Software Architecture for Collaborative Training in Virtual Worlds: F-16 Airplane Engine Maintenance. In A.S. Vivacqua, C. Gutwin, & M.R.S. Borges (Eds.), "Collaboration and Technology", pp. 102-109, ISBN 978-3-642-23800-0. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. [38]

Gregory, S., Gregory, B., Reiners, T., Fardinpour, A., Hillier, M., Lee, M. J. W., . . . Larson, I. (2013). Virtual worlds in Australian and New Zealand higher education: Remembering the past, understanding the present and imagining the future. In H. Carter, M. Gosper, & J. Hedberg (Eds.), Electric dreams. Proceedings of the 30th ASCILITE Conference (pp. 312-324). Sydney, Australia: Macquarie University. [39]

Lee, M. J. W., & Dalgarno, B. (2011). Scaffolding discovery learning in 3D virtual environments: Challenges and considerations for instructional design. In S. Hai-Jew (Ed.), Virtual immersive and 3D learning spaces: Emerging technologies and trends (pp. 138-169). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference. [40]

Pinheiro, A.; Fernandes, P.; Maia, A.; Cruz, G.; Pedrosa, D.; Fonseca, B.; Paredes, H.; Martins, P.; Morgado, L.; Rafael, J. (2012). Development of a Mechanical Maintenance Training Simulator in OpenSimulator for F-16 Aircraft Engines, Procedia Computer Science, 15, 248-255. [41]

Sequeira, L.; Morgado, L. (2013). Mechanisms of three-dimensional content transfer between the OpenSimulator and the Second Life Grid® platforms, Journal of Gaming & Virtual Worlds, 5(1), 41-57. [42]

Silva, E.; Silva, N.; Paredes, H.; Martins, P.; Fonseca, B.; & Morgado, L. (2012). An Ontology-Oriented Architecture for Platform-Independent Multi-User Choreographies, Learning Technology, 14(2). [43]

Silva, E.; Silva, N.; Paredes, H.; Martins, P.; Fonseca, B.; Morgado, L. (2012). Development of platform-independent multi-user choreographies for virtual worlds based on ontology combination and mapping. In "VL/HCC 2012, Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing, September 30-October4 - Innsbruck, Austria", 149-152. [44]

THEORY OF VIRTUAL WORLDS EDUCATION[edit]

Anstadt, S., Bradley, S., & Burnette, A. (2013). Virtual Worlds: Relationship Between Real Life and Experience in Second Life. International Review Of Research In Open & Distance Learning, 14(4), 160-190. Of interest to those in social work, psychology, mental health work.

Behm-Morawitz, E. (2013). Mirrored selves: The influence of self-presence in a virtual world on health, appearance, and well-being. Computers In Human Behavior, 29(1), 119-128.

Billieux, J., Van der Linden, M., Achab, S., Khazaal, Y., Paraskevopoulos, L., Zullino, D., & Thorens, G. (2013). Why do you play World of Warcraft? An in-depth exploration of self-reported motivations to play online and in-game behaviours in the virtual world of Azeroth. Computers In Human Behavior, 29(1), 103-109.

Cruz, A., Paredes, H., Fonseca, B., Morgado, L., & Martins, P. (2014). Can Presence Improve Collaboration in 3D Virtual Worlds?, Procedia Technology, 13, 47-55.

Dalgarno, B., & Lee, M. J. W. (2012). Exploring the relationship between afforded learning tasks and learning benefits in 3D virtual learning environments. In M. Brown, M. Hartnett, & T. Stewart (Eds.), Future challenges, sustainable futures. Proceedings of the 29th ASCILITE Conference (pp. 236–245). Wellington, New Zealand: Massey University. [45]

Duncan, I., Miller, A., & Jiang, S. (2012). A taxonomy of virtual worlds usage in education. British Journal Of Educational Technology, 43(6), 949-964. Focuses on the uses of virtualworlds for education and synthesises over 100 published academic papers, reports and educational websites from around the world.

Faiola, A., Newlon, C., Pfaff, M., & Smyslova, O. (2013). Correlating the effects of flow and telepresence in virtual worlds: Enhancing our understanding of user behavior in game-based learning. Computers In Human Behavior, 29(3), 1113-1121.

Fox, J., Bailenson, J., & Tricase, L. (2013). The embodiment of sexualized virtual selves: The Proteus effect and experiences of self-objectification via avatars. Computers In Human Behavior, 29(3), 930-938.

Hammick, J., & Lee, M. (2014). Do shy people feel less communication apprehension online? The effects of virtual reality on the relationship between personality characteristics and communication outcomes. Computers In Human Behavior, 33302-310. Shy individuals felt less apprehension in virtual setting

Hasler, B., Tuchman, P., & Friedman, D. (2013). Virtual research assistants: Replacing human interviewers by automated avatars in virtual worlds. Computers In Human Behavior, 29(4), 1608-1616.

Hassouneh, D., & Brengman, M. (2014). A motivation-based typology of social virtual world users. Computers In Human Behavior, 33330-338.

Krange, I., & Arnseth, H. (2012). Students' meaning making in science: solving energy resource problems in virtual worlds combined with spreadsheets to develop graphs. Cultural Studies Of Science Education, 7(3), 585-605.

Kuksa, I. & Childs, M., 2014. Making Sense of Space: The design and experience of virtual spaces as a tool to communicate, Cambridge: Chados Publishing.

Kurilovas, E., Kubilinskiene, S., & Dagiene, V. (2014). Web 3.0 – Based personalisation of learning objects in virtual learning environments. Computers In Human Behavior, 30654-662.

Lee, E. A., Wong, K. W., & Fung, C. C. (2010). How does desktop virtual reality enhance learning outcomes? A structural equation modeling approach. Computers & Education, 55, 1424–1442.

Lee, M. J. W. (2009). How can 3D virtual worlds be used to support collaborative learning? An analysis of cases from the literature. Journal of e-Learning and Knowledge Society, 5(1), 149-158. [46]

Lee, M. J. W., & Dalgarno, B. (2011). Scaffolding discovery learning in 3D virtual environments: Challenges and considerations for instructional design. In S. Hai-Jew (Ed.), Virtual immersive and 3D learning spaces: Emerging technologies and trends (pp. 138-169). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference. [47]

Lu, L. (2013). 3D Virtual Worlds as Art Media and Exhibition Arenas: Students' Responses and Challenges in Contemporary Art Education. Studies In Art Education, 54(3), 232-245. Student creation and criticism of art in VWs is advantageous in art education.

Luse, A., Mennecke, B., & Triplett, J. (2013). The changing nature of user attitudes toward virtual world technology: A longitudinal study. Computers In Human Behavior, 29(3), 1122-1132. Results show that while self-efficacy increases over time, user acceptance decreases in a highly correlated pattern. A second study investigates the underlying causes of the observed pattern of user acceptance using a content analysis of written reflections of user experiences. Both studies paint a detailed picture of user intentions and some of the reasons these intentions developed after use.

Merchant, Z., Goetz, E., Cifuentes, L., Keeney-Kennicutt, W., & Davis, T. (2014). Effectiveness of virtual reality-based instruction on students' learning outcomes in K-12 and higher education: A meta-analysis. Computers & Education, 7029-40.

Morgado, L.; Varajão, J.; Coelho, D.; Rodrigues, C.; Sancín, C.; Castello, V. (2010). The Attributes and Advantages of Virtual Worlds for Real World Training, The Journal of Virtual Worlds and Education 1(1), 15-35. [48]

Noteborn, G., Bohle Carbonell, K., Dailey-Hebert, A., & Gijselaers, W. (2012). The role of emotions and task significance in Virtual Education. Internet & Higher Education, 15(3), 176-183.

Pellas, N. (2014). The development of a virtual learning platform for teaching concurrent programming languages in the Secondary Education: The use of Open Sim and Scratch4OS. Journal of e-Learning and Knowledge Society, 10(1), 129-143.

Pellas, N. & Kazanidis, I. (2012). Re-thinking a Cognitive presence framework for the utilization and transferability of the Jigsaw technique in open source virtual worlds. Bulletin of the Technical Committee on Learning Technology, 14(3), 24-27.

Pellas, N. (2014). A cybernetic framework to articulate the organizational complexity of users’ interactions with the Jigsaw technique in an Open Sim standalone server. International Journal of Innovation and Learning (in press).

Pellas, N. (2014). A theoretical cybernetic macro-script to articulate the organizational complexity of cyber entities’ collaborative interactions in virtual worlds. International Journal of Learning and Change (in press). Pellas, N. (2012). Towards a beneficial formalization of cyber entities’ interactions during the e-learning process in the virtual world of “Second Life”. In P. Renna (Ed.), Production and Manufacturing System Management: Coordination approaches and multi-site Planning (pp. 278-314). Hershey, PA: Engineering Science Reference.

Pellas, N. (2012). A conceptual “cybernetic” methodology for organizing and managing the e-learning process through [D-] CIVEs: The case of “Second Life”. In P. Renna (Ed.), Production and Manufacturing System Management: Coordination approaches and multi-site Planning (pp. 278-314). Hershey, PA: Engineering Science Reference.

Pellas, N. (2013). Towards a theoretical “cybernetic” framework: Discovering the pedagogical value of the virtual world “Second Life”. In K. Burgga & N. Zaman (Eds.), Software Development techniques for constructive information systems design (pp. 128-182). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Pellas, N. (2013). An innovative “cybernetic” organization improvement plan through participatory action research in persistent “open source” virtual worlds. In T. Issa, P. Isaias, & P. Kommers (Eds.), Information Systems and technology for organization in a Networked society (pp. 107-129). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Pellas, N. (2013). Theoretical foundations of a CSCL script in persistent virtual worlds according to the Contemporary Learning Theories and Models. In N. Efraim (Ed.), Collaborative Processes and Decision Making in Organizations (pp. 72-107). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Pellas, N. (2014). Unraveling a progressive inquiry script in persistent virtual worlds: Theoretical foundations and decision processes for constructing a socio-cultural learning framework. In Z. Jin, Exploring Implicit Cognition: Learning, Memory, and Social-Cognitive Processes. Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Ramdass, D. (2012). The role of cognitive apprenticeship in learning science in a virtual world. Cultural Studies Of Science Education, 7(4), 985-992. "This article extends the discussion started by Margaret Beier, Leslie Miller, and Shu Wang’s (2012) paper, Science games and the development of possible selves. In this paper, I suggest that a theoretical framework based on a sociocultural theory of learning is critical in learning in a virtual environment."

Schiller, S., Mennecke, B., Nah, F., & Luse, A. (2014). Institutional boundaries and trust of virtual teams in collaborative design: An experimental study in a virtual world environment. Computers In Human Behavior, 35565-577.

Shen, C., Monge, P., & Williams, D. (2014). Virtual Brokerage and Closure: Network Structure and Social Capital in a Massively Multiplayer Online Game. Communication Research, 41(4), 459-480. Social networks were constructed from behavioral server logs of EverQuest II, a Massively Multiplayer Online Game. Results provided strong support for the structural model, demonstrating that players’ network brokerage positively predicted their task performance in the game and players embedded in closed networks were more likely to trust each other.

Wang, S. (2012). Applying a 3D situational virtual learning environment to the real world business-an extended research in marketing. British Journal Of Educational Technology, 43(3), 411-427.

Yee, N., & Bailenson, J. (2007). The Proteus Effect: The Effect of Transformed Self-Representation on Behavior. Human Communication Research, 33(3), 271-290.

Yoon, T., & George, J. (2013). Why aren’t organizations adopting virtual worlds?. Computers In Human Behavior, 29(3), 772-790.


VISUAL ARTS[edit]

Wagner, James Au. (2014). AM Radio: The Banksy of Second Life. Polygon. Retrieved July 14, 2014 from http://www.polygon.com/features/2014/7/9/5825936/second-life-am-radio